Friday, July 17, 2020
Coffee On The Wall I sat with my friend in a well-known coffee shop in a neighboring town of Venice, Italy, the city of lights and water.As we enjoyed our coffee, a man entered and sat at an empty table beside us. He called the waiter and placed his order saying, Two cups of coffee, one of them there on the wall.We heard this order with rather interest and observed that he was served with one cup of coffee but he paid for two. When he left, the waiter put a piece of paper on the wall saying A Cup of Coffee.While we were still there, two other men entered and ordered three cups of coffee, two on the table and one on the wall. They had two cups of coffee but paid for three and left. This time also, the waiter did the same; he put a piece of paper on the wall saying, A Cup of Coffee.It was something unique and perplexing for us. We finished our coffee, paid the bill and left.After a few days, we had a chance to go to this coffee shop again. While we were enjoying our coffee, a man poorly dressed entered. As he seated himself, he looked at the wall and said, One cup of coffee from the wall.The waiter served coffee to this man with the customary respect and dignity. The man had his coffee and left without paying.We were amazed to watch all this, as the waiter took off a piece of paper from the wall and threw it in the trash bin.Now it was no surprise for us â" the matter was very clear. The great respect for the needy shown by the inhabitants of this town made our eyes well up in tears.Ponder upon the need of what this man wanted. He enters the coffee shop without having to lower his self-esteem he has no need to ask for a free cup of coffee without asking or knowing about the one who is giving this cup of coffee to him he only looked at the wall, placed an order for himself, enjoyed his coffee and left.A truly beautiful thought. Probably the most beautiful wall you may ever see anywhere!Author Unknown Submitted by H H Chanchani
Thursday, May 21, 2020
Sami Stoll Dr. McAlister 28 October, 2014 EH 101 No matter where one goes or their age, there are almost always many options for schooling. Some options focus on general topics of academics, including arithmetic, English, social studies, math, etc, while others focus on trades that allow the student to learn all the skills of the workforce. Either choice has endless possibilities, and a lot of freedom for the student to pick. The importance of education is found in many cultures, but where did it all begin? Medieval Europe started many ideals about education that would have a powerful effect on many different forms of education around the world. Medieval Europe birthed the very first institutions in which students could collectively learn the same information. While the institutions and the importance of education was growing more and more popular, the population in Europe was also growing larger. More people meant that the demand for schools also went up. These schools operated by teaching the bare minimums. This included basic math, rhetoric, Latin, philosophy, and logic. Because many places where these children were taught were not the wealthiest places--or the family/community did not have enough money--the students did not have desks like schools do today; instead, they sat on the floor (Education). Bones or other materials were used as writing utensils, and they would inscribe their assignments on wooden tablets (Education). Because the first institutionsShow MoreRelatedThe Reign Of The Carolingian Dynasty1429 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAlthough the reign of the Carolingian dynasty occupied only a brief part of the e ntirety of the medieval era, the Carolingian Empire that was established during that period made both a historical and cultural impact on medieval society that would resonate for years to come. Until the empire fell in 888, the Carolingian House of the Franks initially brought stability and progress to most of Europe, as well as pioneering a cultural and intellectual renaissance that influenced the remainder of the MiddleRead MoreThe Renaissance Essay758 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe arts. The Renaissance began in 14th-century Italy and spread to the rest of Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries. In this period, the fragmented feudal society of the Middle Ages, with its agricultural economy and church-dominated intellectual and cultural life, was transformed into a society increasingly dominated by central political institutions, with an urban, commercial economy and lay patronage of education, the arts, and music. The term renaissance, meaning literally Ã¢â¬Å"rebirth.Ã¢â¬ ModernR ead MoreThe Fall Of The Roman Empire1110 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Medieval Period was an important time in Europe which spanned for over 1000 years, beginning at the fall of the Roman Empire, in 476 CE and ending at the Renaissance in 1500 CE. The Middle Ages were divided into 3 eras, the Early Middle Ages (478 Ã¢â¬â 900 CE), High Middle Ages (900 Ã¢â¬â 1250 CE) and ending with the Late Middle Ages (1250 Ã¢â¬â 1500 CE), which was a time of fear and rapid population decrease caused by the black death. Throughout the Medieval Period there was major contact between societiesRead MoreImportance Of The Renaissance828 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesdating back to medieval times were proven incorrect and abandoned. Also during the Renaissance, there were a range of radical engineering and mechanical innovations, which drastically transformed humanity forever. One such important innovation was the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg. In particular, Medical research advanced significantly during the Renaissance. One of the most profoundly important and drastic changes was in the field of anatomical learning. During medieval times the catholicRead MoreThe Effects of Feudalism Essay1161 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn Medieval times during the 10th and 13th centuries, a form of political and social organization called feudalism was a way of life that had great effect on people of the time and on the modern world. Feudalism was developed because of the weakness of Europe and its kings. The word feudalism comes from the word fief, which was the land held on condition of feudal service, similar to an estate (English). The fiefs bound together lords and vassals. Feudalism was a structure in which a lord dividedRead MoreThe Impact Of Renaissance On Italy And The Renaissance969 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIntroduction Renaissance was a series of revolutions and changes that originated in Italy and had wide spread impact very rapidly in the entire Europe. All the developments and changes were done to keep in mind and keep pace with the local environments and situations. The developments were frequently connected to encourage cultural developments without affecting the basic idea and conventional heritage of the country. Many artists and military personnel also took part in the revolution where theRead MoreThe Middle Ages1747 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthird of the population of western Europe. The British middle ages influenced the development of society through the politics, the religion, and the literature of the era. Politics was a key factor in the development of England in the middle ages. For example, the impact of the new political regime when the Normans conquered England. The Normans (1066-1154) and the Angevins (1154-1399) created political institutions that set England apart from the rest of Europe (Ã¢â¬Å"EnglandÃ¢â¬ ). Henry II was the firstRead MoreAncient Greece And Modern Medieval Europe1686 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMany historians and scientists regard Europe as completely devoid of interest in the history of science. Contemptuously, medieval Europe is most often referred to as the Ã¢â¬Å"Dark Ages,Ã¢â¬ the epithet clearly illustrating the struggles of the time period and disdain for this part of history. The modern perception of medieval society is overwhelmingly dominated by a skewed interpretation of a barbaric, war-torn civilization barely surviving through suffrage of plague and poverty that stifled nearly everyRead MoreThe Enormous Growth During the Renaissance1420 Word s Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe European history. The Renaissance occurred between the 14th and 17th century when there was revival in both learning and culture in Europe. It began in Florence, Italy and traveled throughout other city-states in Italy. It mainly occurred in Italy due to the history of Rome and Roman Empire. The Renaissance was a cultural movement that swept through Europe because of a diversion in significant understanding. Italy was so wealthy that people were willing to spend their money to encourage theRead MoreThe Middle Ages And Its Impact On Western Europe1380 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHowever, this bleak outlook has discounted many of the advancements of this time period, which laid very important foundations to modern education and reason. The Middle Ages was a time of growth for society where universities were born, agricultural and population boomed, and foundations of reason and religion coexisted. On the whole, the population of Western Europe grew quite a lot during the middle ages. Agriculture advancements sparked a population growth recovery from the fall of the Roman Empire
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The Debate of Animal Testing in Laboratories Debating over the animal rights movement has raised questions and concerns for many years. Although animal research has been the cause of many medical breakthroughs, is it morally and ethically right to put animals in these kinds of situations? This is one of the underlying questions that must be solved before it is too late. There has already been too much violence and harm caused by the opposing views of this argument. Shouts of protests and riots are heard on the streets, labs and medical equipment are being burned and destroyed and innocent animals are left hanging in the wake. While animal rights organizations fight for more Ã¢â¬Å"kinder, gentlerÃ¢â¬ ways to treat animals, animal researchÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The first animal welfare organizations were organized in the late 1800s. The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals evolved in 1866 and the American Humane Association was organized in 1877 (Clifford xi). Although the comparison and co ntrast between humans and animals dates back to the beginning of time, it was not until the 1970s and 1980s that more extreme animal rights organizations evolved. One of the most active and influential of these today is PETA, which stands for People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. Founded in 1980, PETA, like many other groups, educates the public about animal abuse and believes in the right of all animals to be treated with respect. PETA has taken defense for the ALF (Animal Liberation Front), which is responsible for criminal activity against research institutions. These activities include break-ins, raids, and sometimes threats (Clifford xi). However, according to Lorenz Lutherer, Ã¢â¬Å"An animal rights attack is reported as part of a national trend rather than as a criminal activityÃ¢â¬ (21). Apparently in most cases, the media creates a sympathetic point of view instead of an unlawful act. An additional concern is that of The Animals Welfare Act. It was designed to protect animals in experiments so why then are so many animal rights organizations still fighting for their safety? According to PETA activists, theShow MoreRelated Animal testing Essay865 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesUse of animals for Laboratory Testing There has been an on going debate on whether to use animals for laboratory testing. There are people now saying the use of animals in laboratory testing is not necessary and there are other alternatives. Many of these people claim the tests that are performed on the animals are not particularly valid. On the other hand, others claim that laboratory testing has been depended on animals to achieve medical advances. Whether or not the use of animals in laboratoryRead More Animal Testing Essay815 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAnimal Testing Animal testing is the running of tests and the research done in a laboratory on animals. Some of the tests are done to benefit human lives and other tests are done to determine side effects of a certain household or cosmetic products. It is a topic that has been up for debate for many years not only in the United States, but all around the world. While some support the advances that come from the research others oppose the cruelty that the media projects to societyRead MoreAnimal Testing: What if You Were in Their Place? Essay1621 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEvery year about 241,000 rabbits are tortured in United States laboratories to test for the effects that household products, such as cosmetics, dishwashing liquid, and drain cleaner will have on their eyes (Rabbits in Laboratories | PETA.org. 1). Scientists will drip chemicals into the eyes of the animal to see how much irritation it will cause, a process known as the Draize eye irritancy test (Rabbits in Laboratories | P ETA.org. 1). The test is certainly not pain free; it often causes distressRead MoreAnimal Testing Should Be Banned1509 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAnimal testing is intended to express the use of animals in scientific research. Every year more than 115 million animals around the world have been used in laboratory experiments (Human Society International,2012). They include animals that are generally used in medical research such as cats, dogs, guinea pigs, mice, rats and monkeys. This experience has a major role in the progress of medicine. For example, it has been used in the development of drugs and surgical procedures and artificialRead MoreAnimal Testing Persuasive Essay1402 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThere is nothing that angers me more, than people working in companies, factories, laboratories, and even in the comfort of their home to use innocent animals to test human products. They continue to test out these products on animals, even after it has been proven that in almost all cases, animal testing has no benefit on us as buyers or consumers. I have found that laboratories are using many animals that are considered as pets to families, such as mice and rats, rabbits, and even guinea pigs.Read MorePros And Cons Of Animal Testing1288 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Each animal bred or used for research, whether a mouse, fish, or monkey, is an individual capable of experiencing pain, suffering, and distressÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"AnimalÃ¢â¬ 2013). The advancements in technology today had sparked a debate worldwide on whether it is right or wrong to use animals for experimentation in laboratories. With newly advanced scientific technology, experts are able to utilize advanced technology to simulate functions of the human body on a much smaller scale, including microchips of humanRead MoreEssay about We Need More Animal Research, Testing, and Experimentation1416 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWe Need More Animal Research, Testing, and Experimentation Ã A life can be taken or created in a matter of seconds and with that has come the miracles of modern medicine. People have come to expect science to save lives, prevent illness, relieve suffering and improve the quality of life. The means of curing, treating and preventing diseases are not achieved by magic or accident. Medical advances are gained through years of intensive research -- research in which laboratory animals have playedRead MoreHello1309 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages2016 The Morality of Animal Testing in Cosmetic Companies Preface The ethical treatment of animal testing is a controversial topic in the field of zoology. Different aspects on animal testing range from positivity to negativity. Animals such as dogs and rats are used for experimental trials because they have been found to have psychological and genetic correlations that relate to humans. Although the benefits and improvements to modern medicine made it possible to ban animal experimentation completelyRead MoreEssay about Animal Rights1553 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesissue of animal experimentation is a widely debated topic in the United States. A fundamental question of this debate is whether the functions of animal testing and research are morally and ethically justified. In the viewpoint of the pro-research community, animal testing is a necessary practice. They support this position by stating that humans, instinctually, prioritize their own survival above other animals thus making any use of animals justifiable (Fox 5). The supporters of animal test ing believeRead MoreAnimal Testing: A True Ethical Dilemma Essay1622 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThis is the life of a laboratory animal. Animal testing is the use of animals for scientific research purposes and experiments. It can be used for the findings of cures and medicines to testing new drugs, to understanding the behavioral psychology of the animals themselves. Ã¢â¬Å"Around fifty to one hundred million vertebrate animals, ranging from fish to primates, are used in experiments each yearÃ¢â¬ (Lloyd). There are many different terms used to describe the research on animals but two main ideas. In
Many people have not heard or have read any of the classical short stories by O. Henry a 1900 short story writer. His style of writing makes the reader feel the emotions of the charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ by detailed and deep descriptions. We will write a custom essay sample on OÃ¢â¬â¢Henry Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now Because of O. Henrys unique writing his stories have delighted readers for over a hundred years. One of O. Henrys writing styles he uses In many of his stories are member s of law enforcement. In his short story Ã¢â¬Å"A Dollars Worth,Ã¢â¬ he uses many members of law enforcement. In that same story it makes more sense if a district attorney is being threatened by a man he put in jail rather than a regular person. It also can make the story interesting like a shootout with a criminal and the district attorney in Ã¢â¬Å"A Dollars Worth. Ã¢â¬ There are even more examples of law enforcement in Ã¢â¬Å"The Retrieved Reformation. Ã¢â¬ An example is the eminent detective Ben Price who arrested Jimmy for safe cracking. There is also the warden at the Jail that Jimmy served his sentence. The warden wanted Jimmy to stop safe cracking and Just be a good citizen. This Is Just one of O. Henrys writing styles. Another writing style of O. Henry Is the use of Irony In his stories. In Ã¢â¬Å"The Retrieved Reformation,Ã¢â¬ he uses Irony at the end. The Irony happens when Jimmy has to use his tools for good and not for stealing to save a girls life. O. Henry also uses Irony in his short story Ã¢â¬Å"The Last Leaf. Ã¢â¬ In the story Bergman an amateur artist who is not very gifted at art is able to with his art save a dying girls life. I think the way O. Henry uses irony makes his stories stand out and unique to other short story writers. He also has many other styles and his is Just another one of his writing styles. He also uses ordinary people for his characters in his short stories. In Ã¢â¬Å"The Gift of The Magi,Ã¢â¬â¢ he uses two ordinary people trying to make the other happy. When he uses regular people other people might relate to same problems as the characters. Since he uses ordinary Ã¢â¬Å"The Last Leaf. Ã¢â¬ He can show that the artists go through the same problems as other people unlike superheroes who are untouchable. He shows that you donÃ¢â¬â¢t need special people to make a story great, but a good story. Those are Just some of the writing characteristics of O. Henry. Because of his unique writing styles he will make the next and the next grasp his books and fall in love with them. O. Henrys writing style will has made readers laugh, cry, and feel the emotion of the characters for over a hundred years. BY Jollities unique writing his stories have delighted readers for over a hundred years. One of O. Henrys writing styles he uses in many of his stories are member s of law threatened by a man he put in Jail rather than a regular person. It also can make the Arden wanted Jimmy to stop safe cracking and Just be a good citizen. This is Just Another writing style of O. Henry is the use of irony in his stories. In Ã¢â¬Å"The Retrieved Reformation,Ã¢â¬ he uses irony at the end. The irony happens when Jimmy has to use his tools for good and not for stealing to save a girls life. O. Henry also uses irony in his short story Ã¢â¬Å"The Last Leaf. Ã¢â¬ In the story but a good story. Those are Just some of the writing characteristics of O. Henry. Books and fall in love with them. O. Henrys writing style will has made readers laugh, How to cite OÃ¢â¬â¢Henry Essay, Essays
Saturday, April 25, 2020
Tok Reflection: the Mouse Who Ate the Cheese Paper Tok Reflection: the Mouse Who Ate the Cheese BY IBstudent1996 TOK Reflection: The Mouse who Ate the Cheese The short story The Mouse who Ate the cheese, by Stuart fowler (1993) develops the ideals that are centered on the concept of belief and knowledge, and how they these two concepts are often difficult to differentiate. It would be accurate to state that Bill knew that he saw the mouse eat the cheese, since he physical witnessed the mouse ingesting the cheese and there wasnt the possibility of obscurity of Judgment, since he was sober and no mental disorders was mentioned during the proximity of the tory. We will write a custom essay sample on Tok Reflection: the Mouse Who Ate the Cheese specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Tok Reflection: the Mouse Who Ate the Cheese specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Tok Reflection: the Mouse Who Ate the Cheese specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Though in the case of Alice it isnt incorrect to state that she knew the mouse ate the cheese, its only fair to say that she believed so. The primary reasoning centered on this concept is that Alice didnt physically see or hear the mouse uptake the cheese; she simply made an assumption regarding the mouse eating the cheese. Without verified proof , it is not accurate to state that Alice say the mouse eat the cheese, since she only believe this ideal based on applied logic and belief. The other two individuals present within the story Virginia and Adrian who also claimed to now that they knew the mouse ate the cheese simply of off the premise that an authority source (Bill) had told them. Therefore it is not viable or adequate for them to state that they knew they saw the mouse, only which they believe. Despite the fact that they informed through a person they define as trustworthy and reliable, they still face the region of doubt; since they were unable to witness the mouse eating the cheese through them acting as the primary source. The only individual who denied believing or knowing that the mouse ate the cheese was George the homeowner of the house where the party was held. His reasoning behind his stance was Justified by that of emotion and his belief in the exterminator. Though, he failed to consider the possibility that the exterminator could have been have wrong or that Just recently these pests had begun to invade his house. The only way George would know and be convinced that a mouse was present within his home was if he had seen it with his own eyes, eliminating the possibility of doubt. The only possible circumstance that everyone at the party would have known that the mouse had ate the cheese, was if they were to all saw it with their own eyes, in a sober state, Personally, I believe that here is a definable difference between an individual knowing something and believe something. In order for a person to know I believe that they must witness it first hand, without the possibility of anything that could disorient their mental state. Though there are situations where this necessary cant always be achieved, I believe that there must be more than one source stating the same thing. To simply belief something has always been a difficult concept for me to relate to, since to believe individuals must confront the possibility that their belief has the possibility to be wrong. Along with this, many times the concept that is to be believed doesnt hold the complete truth due to the possibility of perception and biases. Often I think that individuals misconceive the ideals of belief with knowledge, defining their own belief as factual, without considering the prospect that their inaccurate and untrue. nougn, tnls also poses tne Tact on wnetner or not a persons Deller true or not can De defined as knowledge. Finally, the ideals that are centered on belief and knowledge are often difficult to differentiate, it is often heavily relating on a person own personal perception and perspective on the questioned topic.
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
How to Become an Author The Ultimate Guide from a Bestseller How to Become an Author: Your Complete Guide So you want to become an author Well, IÃ¢â¬â¢ve got good news and IÃ¢â¬â¢ve got bad news. The bad news first: Writing your book wont be easy. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re in the middle of that process, youÃ¢â¬â¢re nodding right now. But hereÃ¢â¬â¢s the good news: All that work isa small price for the amazing possibilities it can open to you: Getting published Enjoying a career you love Impacting people with your writing Media attention Royalty income In this extensive guide, my goal is to give you an honest look at how to become a writer- using lessons IÃ¢â¬â¢ve learned from 40+ years working with some of the top publishers in the world. Having written 21 New York Times bestsellers myself, IÃ¢â¬â¢m confident these lessons will help you in your writing journey. Ready? LetÃ¢â¬â¢s do it. What You Will Learn HereÃ¢â¬â¢s the short version of everything I cover in this complete, step-by-step post: DONÃ¢â¬â¢T Try toBecome an Author Until Youve Studied the Craft and Polished Your Skills Written Things Shorter Than a Book Plugged Yourself into a Community of Writers Writing Your Book Create a Writing Schedule You Can Stick to Research and Plan Keep Your Day Job Become a Ferocious Self-Editor Trying to Land a Publishing Contract How to Get an Agent Selling a Publisher Editing Your Book Like Crazy (Again) with an Editor Should You Self-Publish? An Overview of Self-Publishing How to Set Your Book Apart Choosing the Right Self-Publishing Company The #1 Killer of Self-Published Books Want to save this 5000-word guide to read later? Click here to get a free PDF version you can read anytime. 1. DONÃ¢â¬â¢T Try toBecome a Writer Until YouÃ¢â¬â¢ve I get it. YouÃ¢â¬â¢re antsy. YouÃ¢â¬â¢re ready to pen your bestseller right now. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ve read or heard of writers who had never written a thing before and yet scored with a million-seller on their first try. Throttle back. Those stories become big news because theyÃ¢â¬â¢re so rare. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t bank on winning the lottery. If you want your book (and your message) to go anywhere, make sure youÃ¢â¬â¢ve: Studied the Craft ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s no need to write a compelling story by trial and error anymore. Others have already done it for you- and written books about it. So your best bet is to follow proven methods. Great writers are great readers. SohereÃ¢â¬â¢s a list of my favorite 12 books on writing to get you started. The competition has gotten so fierce, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll do yourself a favor if you learn how successful authors write before you try to get a second look from a publisher. Take the time to learn what youÃ¢â¬â¢re doing. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll thank yourself later. Written Things Shorter Than a Book A book shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be where you start any more than you should enroll in grad school when youÃ¢â¬â¢re a kindergartner. A book is where you arrive. Start small, learn the craft, hone your skills. Do some journaling. Write a newsletter. Start a blog. Get articles published in a couple of magazines, a newspaper, an ezine. Take a night school or online course in journalism or creative writing. Publishers are looking for authors with platforms (in short: audiences, tribes, followers, fans). So start building yours now. Any of the pieces above will start building steam behind your writing, and boost name recognition for you as a writer. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re planning to start blogging, check out this post on creating an author website. Bottom line:Work a quarter-million clicheÃ s out of your system, learn what it means to be edited, become an expert in something, build your platform, and then start thinking about that book or novel. Plugged Yourself into a Community of Writers Think you can do it alone? Then youÃ¢â¬â¢re a better writer than I. Almost every traditionally published author I know is surrounded by a helpful community. How else would they deal with things like: Frustration Discouragement Procrastination Wanting to quit IÃ¢â¬â¢ve written over 185 books, yet I often wonder whether I can finish the next one. At this stage for me, community means knowing I can be encouraged by colleagues whenever I need it. When youÃ¢â¬â¢re starting out, another pair of eyes on your work can prove to be invaluable. Ten pairs of eyes are even better. Join a writersÃ¢â¬â¢ group. Find a mentor. Stay open to criticism. One caveat with writersÃ¢â¬â¢ groups: make sure at least one person, preferably the leader, is widely published and understands the publishing landscape. Otherwise you risk the blind leading the blind. 2. Writing Your Book Surprisingly, most people never get this far. Whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s fear or procrastination or something else, few writers ever make it to the first page. To avoid becoming part of this sad group, you need a plan. So regardless your personal writing method, be sure to cover these bases: Create a Writing Schedule You Can Stick To When youÃ¢â¬â¢re an author, writing becomes your job. So treat it that way. Show up and do the work whether you feel like it or not. WriterÃ¢â¬â¢s block is no excuse. In no other profession could you get away with getting out of work by claiming you have workerÃ¢â¬â¢s block. Try that and see what it gets you- likely a pink slip. Find at least six hours a week to write. Well, find is the wrong word, of course. You wonÃ¢â¬â¢t find it, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll have to carve out the time. Lock these hours into your calendar and keep them sacred. If you canÃ¢â¬â¢t think of what to write, then edit. If you canÃ¢â¬â¢t edit, plan. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll be astonished at your ability to get stuff done when you finally plant yourself in your chair. Challenge: DonÃ¢â¬â¢t move until you have scheduled at least six hours. Research and Plan To give your manuscript the best chance to succeed, skip this step at your peril. Excellent preparation will make or break your book. Two main ways you should be preparing: 1. Outline. Regardless how you feel about outlining, you need an idea of where youÃ¢â¬â¢re going before you start. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re writing a novel, youÃ¢â¬â¢re either an outliner or a pantser- those who write by the seat of their pants. (If youÃ¢â¬â¢re writing a nonfiction book, an outline is a given.) On the fiction side, the definition of an outliner is obvious. You plan everything beforehand. But pantsers write by process of discovery- or as Stephen King puts it, they Ã¢â¬Å"put interesting characters in difficult situations and write to find out what happens.Ã¢â¬ Neither is better or worse. But most writers are one or the other (a few are hybrids, largely one over the other but doing a little of both). But, depending on which you are, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll approach the planning phase completely differently. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re a hardcore outliner (and a novelist), youÃ¢â¬â¢ll enjoy my friend and colleague Randy IngermansonÃ¢â¬â¢s Snowflake Method. But if youÃ¢â¬â¢re a pantser, check out this post for non-outliners. Itll teach you how to work within a structure while staying free enough to writeon the fly. 2. Do the research. All great stories are rooted in solid research. If your research stinks, your story sinks. If your character drives 10 miles east out of the Chicago Loop, heÃ¢â¬â¢d better be in an amphibious vehicle, because heÃ¢â¬â¢ll be in Lake Michigan. (And you thought I was joking about sinking.) To avoid such embarrassing errors, do your research. Immerse yourself in the details of your setting. Make sure no characters are wearing ski jackets when itÃ¢â¬â¢s 95 degrees outside. Two online research tools that will help you avoid mistakes: The World Atlas A directory of some of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s top almanacs DonÃ¢â¬â¢t Quit Your Day Job I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t become a full-time freelance author until I had written and published nearly 90 books. I had been advised by a veteran author that my freelance income ought to be around three times what I made at my job before I considered going solo. I was stunned. Why so much more? He started listing everything I would have to pay for on my own. Insurance, retirement, all my benefits. I had always been careful to separate my writing and my office work, but during my off hours on business trips I might do some research. No more. Any travel would be on me. Your day job doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to keep you from writing your book. You might not like this, but I recommend you keep it and spend your after-hours time writing your book. Why? Two reasons: YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll have steady income- one less thing to worry about- while trying to build your writing career. The structure will force you to be more productive with fewer hours. So, yes, you can have your cake and eat it too- without sacrificing time with family. You lose three hours per night for what, TV? How big a sacrifice is that for your writing dream? How badly do you want to become an author? Become a Writer Ferocious About Self-Editing This section is so important that it has the power to determine whether your book makes a huge splash with readers and publishers- or slides into the editorÃ¢â¬â¢s reject pile after the first page or two. Get serious about self-editing. Editors know from the first page whether your manuscript is publishable. I know that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t sound fair or even logical. YouÃ¢â¬â¢re thinking, It took me months, maybe years, to write hundreds of pages and you didnÃ¢â¬â¢t even get to the good stuff! How could they do that to you? Why did they? First, the good stuff ought to be in the first two paragraphs. And if they see 15 adjustments they need to make on the first two pages, they know the cost of editing three or four hundred pages of the same would eat whatever profits they could hope for before even printing the book. To avoid the dreaded Ã¢â¬Å"Thank you, but this doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t meet a current needÃ¢â¬ letter, your manuscript must be lean and mean, besides being a great story and a great read. Here are my 21 rules of ferocious self-editing: Develop a thick skin. Avoid throat-clearing. Choose the normal word over the obtuse. Omit needless words. Avoid subtle redundancies, like: Ã¢â¬Å"She nodded her head in agreement.Ã¢â¬ Those last four words could be deleted. Avoid the words up and down- unless theyÃ¢â¬â¢re really needed. Usually delete the word that. Use it only for clarity. Give the reader credit. Once youÃ¢â¬â¢ve established something, you donÃ¢â¬â¢t need to repeat it. Avoid telling whatÃ¢â¬â¢s not happening. Avoid being an adjectival maniac. Avoid hedging verbs like smiled slightly, almost laughed, frowned a bit, etc. Avoid the term literally- when you mean figuratively. Avoid too much stage direction. Maintain a single point of view (POV) for every scene. Avoid clichÃ ©s, and not just words and phrases, but situations. Resist the urge to explain (RUE). Show, donÃ¢â¬â¢t tell. People say things; they donÃ¢â¬â¢t wheeze, gasp, sigh, laugh, grunt, or retort them. Specifics add the ring of truth, even to fiction. Avoid similar character names. In fact, avoid even the same first initials. Avoid mannerisms of punctuation, typestyles, and sizes. 3. Trying to Land a Publishing Contract Want to save this 5000-word guide to read later? Click here to get a free PDF version you can read anytime. IÃ¢â¬â¢m not going to sugarcoat it- this isnÃ¢â¬â¢t easy. But if you have a solid plan (and if youÃ¢â¬â¢ve followed the guide), youÃ¢â¬â¢ve got as good a chance as any. This section will show you how to become an author by revealing the options available. These best practices can vastly increase your likelihood of getting published. How to Get an Agent Your first step in trying to land a traditional publishing deal should be to land an agent- which can be just as difficult, as it should be. There will seem a dichotomy here, because you are likely writing for altruistic reasons- you have a mission, a passion, a message, something burning inside that you must share with the world. Yet agents or publishers will appear to base their decisions solely on the bottom line. If they see sales potential, they will accept it; if they donÃ¢â¬â¢t they wonÃ¢â¬â¢t. But donÃ¢â¬â¢t despair. That doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean they donÃ¢â¬â¢t share your passion. It simply means they must make a profit to stay in business- even faith-based publishers who are all about ministry. Though itÃ¢â¬â¢s hard to find an agent, it is possible to get traditionally published without one. Most will not consider unsolicited manuscripts, though some will. Check The WriterÃ¢â¬â¢s Market Guide and The Christian WriterÃ¢â¬â¢s MarketGuide for publishers that donÃ¢â¬â¢t require agent-represented manuscript submissions. Some will allow you to submit at writers conferences or through other clients of theirs. Be aware that itÃ¢â¬â¢s not unheard of to submit an unsolicited manuscript to dozens of publishers without success. An agent can make your life a lot easier. A plethora of new doors open because of your agentÃ¢â¬â¢s connections. Besides the instant credibility of an agentÃ¢â¬â¢s approval and the knowledge that your writing has survived a vetting process, you also get valuable input and coaching on how to fashion your query and proposal from someone who understands the publishing industry, knows the players and whoÃ¢â¬â¢s looking for what, and has experience successfully pitching publishers. Obviously, there are good agents and bad agents. How do you know whom you can trust? The credible agent welcomes scrutiny. So find reviews. Check with other clients. Ask: How did their book turn out? Did they feel taken care of? Were they pleased with the results? Feel free to ask agents: What kinds of books have they succeeded with? Have they succeeded in your genre? Once you compile a list of agents who seem to be a good fit, follow their submission guidelines. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢ll likely ask for a query letter, synopsis, proposal, and perhaps a few chapters. If any ask for any sort of reading fee or other payment up front, eliminate them as candidates and do not respond. Before you do anything else, check out these submission guidelines from two agents IÃ¢â¬â¢m familiar with. IÃ¢â¬â¢m not necessarily evaluating or endorsing them, except to say that I know them to be ethical and trustworthy and find their guidelines helpful and sound. Their pages will give you a good idea of what typical agents are looking for. Steve LaubeÃ¢â¬â¢s guidelines Hartline LiteraryÃ¢â¬â¢s guidelines Two things you may be asked for- and which some writers struggle with: 1. A query letter This is an easy way to reach out to an agent, but many prefer more- like a full proposal, which weÃ¢â¬â¢ll get to. Most agents prefer submissions of any kind to be electronically submitted as an attachment, not as part of the body of your message. Avoid snail mail. Make your query letter crisp and short. The shorter (while saying what you need to say) the better. A query letter is just what its name implies- it queries the interest of the agent in your book idea. So make it stimulating and intriguing. Remember, youÃ¢â¬â¢re selling your book to the agent. Four essential parts of an effective query letter: a. Your elevator pitch This is a summary of your bookÃ¢â¬â¢s premise, told in the time it would take for the editor to reach his floor if you happened to find yourself in the same elevator car. So it has to be fast and convincing. HereÃ¢â¬â¢s the elevator pitch for my very first novel: Ã¢â¬Å"A judge tries a man for a murder the judge committed.Ã¢â¬ It worked. b. Your synopsis In a paragraph, tell what your nonfiction book is about and what you hope to accomplish with it. Or tell the basic premise of the plot of your novel. The synopsis would naturally go beyond the elevator pitch and tell what happens and how things turn out. (Note: Almost any plot, when reduced to a one- or two-paragraph synopsis, sounds ridiculous.) c. Your target audience and why theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll enjoy your book Agents need to believe they can sell it before theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll ask you for more. Help them envision how to pitch it to publishers, but be careful not to oversell. They know the business better than you do and will not be swayed by your assurance that Ã¢â¬Å"everyone will find this amazing.Ã¢â¬ You can say that your audiences have been enthusiastic or that beta readers have expressed excitement. d. Your personal information Sell the agent on yourself. What qualifies you to write this book? What else have you published? What kind of tribe have you built? Where can they read your blog? Of course youÃ¢â¬â¢re including all your contact information. Other query letter tips: Keep it to one page, single-spaced, and 12 pt. sans serif type. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t sell too hard- let your premise speak for itself. Follow the agentÃ¢â¬â¢s submission guidelines to a T. Proof your letter before sending. Any typo on such a short document makes you look like an amateur. HereÃ¢â¬â¢s a great example of a query letter, with a breakdown of why it works, by Brian Klems of WriterÃ¢â¬â¢s Digest. 2. A book proposal YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll find that for most agents, this is the most important document they want to see. Some want only this. Succinctly and completely describe the details of your idea and make them want to read your manuscript in its entirety as soon as itÃ¢â¬â¢s ready. Leave nothing out. For nonfiction, include every major issue youÃ¢â¬â¢ll cover and the basics of what youÃ¢â¬â¢ll say about it. For fiction, rough out the entire plot in a few pages. With a proposal, your query letter becomes a cover letter. Resist the urge to write a long cover letter. Allow your proposal to do the heavy lifting. Three trusted colleagues have produced masterful works on how to write book proposals, so check out what they have to offer: Michael Hyatt: Writing a Winning Book Proposal Jane Friedman: How to Write a Book Proposal (Jane also has some great material on query letters, so search her site for that, too.) Terry Whalin: Book Proposals That Sell Proposals can contain any number of possible components, such as: Premise Elevator pitch Overview Target audience Chapter synopses Marketing ideas Endorsements Your analysis of competing books, and where yours fits Up to three sample chapters More book proposal tips: Tell why you think your book can succeed. Every page in your proposal should make them want to flip to the next page. Despite that a proposal is longer, keep it tight and terse, as short as you can without cutting crucial information. Every word should be designed to pique an agentÃ¢â¬â¢s interest, your goal being to be asked to send your entire manuscript. Which should I choose, query or proposal? The competition is so fierce these days, I would lean toward a full proposal almost every time. The only instances when I might fire off a query would be if an incredible opportunity fell in my lap and I thought an agent could help me jump on it before I had time to craft a proposal. For instance, if a major celebrity wanted help with a book and chose you to write it, a fast letter to an agent might get a quick response. Otherwise, take the time to put together a professional proposal that shows an agent you know how to work and can be thorough. But know this: If you spark an agentÃ¢â¬â¢s interest, they will immediately ask for more information. So youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need a proposal at some point. Keep that in mind and be ready to get busy. Connecting with the Right Publisher Regardless whether you secure an agent, there are five guidelines for submitting your proposal and/or manuscript to publishers: Follow their submission guidelines to a T. Customize your cover letter to each. Know what the publisher wants, and tell them why you believe your book is right for them in light of that. Let it show in your attitude and tone that you realize how few manuscripts are chosen for publication each year, and by the fact that you have done your homework and covered all the bases to ensure youÃ¢â¬â¢re giving the publisher everything they need to make a decision on your manuscript. Avoid gushing and flattery, like adding the obvious sentiments, Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢ll do anything you say, make any changes you want, meet any deadlineÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Just present your complete proposal and professionally express that you look forward to hearing from them. A rule of thumb for first-time authors: If youÃ¢â¬â¢re writing fiction, while some publishers may ask you to send your completed manuscript after reading your proposal, synopsis, and sample chapters, itÃ¢â¬â¢s highly unlikely they will actually offer a contract before they see that completed manuscript. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s because many people can come up with great ideas, and some can produce promising starts to novels. But few can see their way through to the end. So youÃ¢â¬â¢ll have to prove you can do it. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re writing nonfiction, you might be able to secure a publishing contract before you have finished your entire manuscript, though that is also rare. Should it happen, the publisher is likely to offer a lot of guidance and input for shaping the rest of the writing- and youÃ¢â¬â¢ll have a much better chance of success if you work nicely with your editor. Regardless your genre, publishers wonÃ¢â¬â¢t take a second look at your manuscript unless itÃ¢â¬â¢s presented professionally. Use these submission guidelines: Use Times New Roman font (or at the very least avoid sans serif fonts). Use 12-point type. Left-justify your page. (This means your text should be aligned at the left margin, but not the right. This is also called Ã¢â¬Å"flush left, ragged right.Ã¢â¬ ) Double-space your page with no extra space between paragraphs. Each paragraph should be indented one-half inch. One space between sentences. Microsoft Word .doc or .docx file format. 1Ã¢â¬ top, bottom, and side margins (or whatever is standard in your Word program). Editing Your Book Like Crazy (Again) with an Editor By the time you get to this point, youÃ¢â¬â¢ve already spent hours editing your own work. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ve rearranged, improved, and cut things that hurt to cut. Be ready to do more. Once a publisher agrees to take your manuscript, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be assigned an editor to make your manuscript the best it can be. This editor will suggest changes, maybe major ones- especially if itÃ¢â¬â¢s your first book. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t get touchy. Writing is not a solo. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a duet between the writer and an editor. Sometimes youÃ¢â¬â¢ll have to kill sentences that took hours to write. ItÃ¢â¬â¢ll feel like disowning your children. Remember, the editor is on your side. Throw a private temper tantrum if you must, but then cool down and listen. Let them to do their job. You can push back respectfully if you feel strongly that theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve missed your point on something, but do this only when the sting of criticism has worn off and youÃ¢â¬â¢re thinking rationally. Keep an open mind and beeasy to work with. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢ll remember. 4. Should You Self-Publish? Want to save this 5000-word guide to read later? Click here to get a free PDF version you can read anytime. If you can score with a traditional publisher, do it. Exhaust your efforts to traditionally publish before resorting to self-publishing. Even honest self-publishing executives will give you this advice. Why? Because with traditional publishing, the publisher takes all the risks, and youÃ¢â¬â¢re paid an advance against royalties and royalties based on sales. So nothing comes out of your pocket. With self-publishing, however, you pay for everything from design to editing. Packages can cost upwards of $10,000. Back when self-publishing was referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"vanity publishing,Ã¢â¬ you could always tell a self-published book from a traditionally published book due to the lack of quality. Schlocky covers, boring titles, the word by before the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s name on the cover. Too much copy on the front and back covers. Poor typeface and interior design. Lousy writing, editing, and proofreading- sometimes clearly nonexistent. But the game has changed. Publishing your own book is vastly different than it used to be. Your end product can now look much more professional, and your price per book is much more reasonable. Print-on-demand technology now allows for low-cost printing, so you can order as few as two or three books at a time for the same cost per book as you would pay if you were buying hundreds. So, you no longer need to store countless copies in your garage or basement. And self-published books look nicer these days too, because writers have demanded it. How to Set Your Self-Published Book Apart If you resort to this route, realize that you are the publisher now. You have to advertise, promote, and market your own book. But because youÃ¢â¬â¢re earning the profits after expenses, not just a royalty, a successful book will net you more money per copy than a traditionally published one. Admittedly, selling enough self-published copies to actually net you more money than you would make selling more traditionally at a lower royalty rate is rare, but it happens. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s also rare that a self-published book finds its way to bookstore shelves outside the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s own town. (The hard truth is that itÃ¢â¬â¢s not easy for even traditionally published books to place their books in bookstores. Experts say as few as one percent of all published books can be accommodated by bookstores and that the rest must be sold through other channels like the Internet, direct mail, and by hand.) To give your self-published title the best chance to succeed, you need to invest in: A great cover, which will involve purchasing a photo or artwork, type design, and layout Inside layout, type design, and typesetting Editing (resist the urge to use a relative who majored in English or even teaches English; book editing is a specific art) Proofreading (same caveat as above; friends and loved ones who are meticulous spellers are not enough; there are myriad style matters to deal with) Each of these elements will dramatically increase the professional look of your final product and, thus, your hope of selling more books. Do NOT skimp on them. If youÃ¢â¬â¢ve ever built a house without a contractor, you have an idea of how complex this will be if you do it right. So despite the fact that many self-published authors swear by it and believe itÃ¢â¬â¢s fairer to the author than traditional publishing, I maintain that traditional remains the ideal for authors- except for those unique titles that are targeted to deserving but very limited audiences. Choosing the Right Company to Self-Publish Your Book More than 400,000 books are self-published every year in the United States alone. So there are many companies to choose from. But sadly, many are wolves in sheepÃ¢â¬â¢s clothing. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢ll let you create a poor product and tell you itÃ¢â¬â¢s great. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢ll Ã¢â¬Å"awardÃ¢â¬ you a contract, telling you their publication board has Ã¢â¬Å"evaluatedÃ¢â¬ your manuscript and Ã¢â¬Å"found it worthyÃ¢â¬ to be published. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢ll tell you that theyÃ¢â¬â¢re Ã¢â¬Å"not a subsidy publisherÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"not a self-publisherÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"not an independent publisher.Ã¢â¬ But theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll use another euphemism to justify the fact that youÃ¢â¬â¢re paying Ã¢â¬Å"only for promotionÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"only for [this many] copies,Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"only forÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ something else, when the fact is that the fee will cover all their costs and will include their profit. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢ll imply they can get your title before the eyes of every bookstore owner and manager in the country. They might even give examples of a few titles of theirs that have sold into some stores or even made some bestseller list. But they canÃ¢â¬â¢t guarantee your title will be sold into any store. Because that list your title is on that is Ã¢â¬Å"availableÃ¢â¬ to every store owner and manager is merely a master list of all the books on some distributorÃ¢â¬â¢s Internet site of every title in their catalogue. That means your book will get no personal attention from a salesperson and no more emphasis than any of the tens of thousands of other titles on the list. Such companies are using you as little more than a content generator, pretending to have Ã¢â¬Å"chosenÃ¢â¬ your book from among the many they have to choose from, when the fact is they would publish anything you send them in any form, provided your accompanying check clears the bank. Be wary of any company that: DoesnÃ¢â¬â¢t take seriously the editing and proofreading of your book Lets you commit embarrassing typos such as spelling foreword as forward, foreward, or forword Allows the word by before your name on the cover Over-promises what you should expect in the way of personal sales representation, public relations, marketing, distribution, and advertising That said, when you do need to self-publish, legitimate companies with proven track records are ready to assist you. Do your homework and go beyond an Internet search, which will likely turn up beautiful websites for countless companies putting their best foot forward. So find previous customers and ask about their experience. You want a company who will answer every question straightforwardly and without hesitation. If you feel hard-sold, run. A litmus test question for the publisher: Ask if they would advise you to exhaust your efforts to traditionally publish first. I asked this of the head of WestBow PressÃ¢â ¢, a division of Thomas Nelson and Zondervan, and he said he always advises customers that this is the ideal route. That kind of refreshing honesty bodes well for a company. The #1 Killer of Self-Published Books When writers run out of money to invest in their book, too often the first place that suffers is the content itself. Writers may understand that they are not experts in cover design, layout and typesetting, marketing and promotion, warehousing, distribution, and sales. But they overrate their writing and editing and proofreading abilities. So, they invest in those other services and cut corners on editing and proofreading. What they wind up with is a handsome product that looks like a real book but reads like the manuscript that made the rounds of the traditional houses and was rejected. You must determine what will set you apart in a noisy marketplace. That certain something that will set you apart is what it has always been: Writing quality. Having been in the writing game for 50 years and the book business for 40, that is something I am able to tell you. To use an ancient adage, cream rises. That may sound like something scratched on a cave wall. But it simply means that readers recognize quality. You or your agent may be looking for a deal from a traditional publisher. Or you may have chosen to self-publish online, in print, or both. Regardless, you want your manuscript to be of the highest editorial quality you can make it. What does that mean? It means you must: Learn the craft and hone your skills. Rigorously study writing, do exercises, write stories. It can all pay off. Just as with physical exercise, the more the better, but anything is better than nothing. Recognize that writing well is much harder and more involved than you ever dreamed. If you thought writing was merely a hobby, this realization could crush you. So, to push through, remember why you wanted to become a writer in the first place: You have a message, and people need to hear it. Dont trust friendsÃ¢â¬â¢ and relativesÃ¢â¬â¢ flattery. Sure, theyÃ¢â¬â¢re great for keeping you from quitting. But when you need solid input on your writing, their enthusiasm wonÃ¢â¬â¢t translate to sales. Accept criticism and input from people who know what theyÃ¢â¬â¢re talking about. Find an experienced writer or editor whoÃ¢â¬â¢ll offer honest feedback on your work. Join a writers group. Attend writers conferences. Get a mentor. Free Download: Want your own copy of this guide? You can grabthe full PDF version by clicking here or on the image below: If you really want to become an author, it can be done. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll know youÃ¢â¬â¢re ready when youÃ¢â¬â¢re willing to carve the time from your schedule to write. So how badly do you want it? Tell me in the Comments below.
Monday, March 2, 2020
The Treaty of Verdun The Treaty of Verdun divided the empire that Charlemagne had built into three portions, which would be governed by his three surviving grandsons. It is significant because it not only marked the beginning of the empires dissolution, it laid out the general boundaries of what would become individual nation-states of Europe. Background of the Treaty of Verdun Upon the death of Charlemagne, his sole surviving son, Louis the Pious, inherited the entire Carolingian Empire. But Louis had several sons, and though he wanted the empire to remain a cohesive whole, he divided and re-divided the territory so that each might govern his own kingdom. The eldest, Lothair, was given the title of emperor, but amidst the re-apportioning and the revolts that resulted, his actual imperial power was severely curtailed. After the death of Louis in 840, Lothair tried to reclaim the power hed originally wielded as emperor, but his two surviving brothers, Louis the German and Ã¢â¬â¹Charles the Bald, joined forces against him, and a bloody civil war ensued. Lothair was eventually forced to admit defeat. After extensive negotiations, the Treaty of Verdun was signed in August, 843. Terms of the Treaty of Verdun Under the terms of the treaty, Lothair was allowed to keep the title of emperor, but he no longer had any real authority over his brothers. He received the central portion of the empire, which included parts of present-day Belgium and much of the Netherlands, some of eastern France and western Germany, most of Switzerland, and a substantial portion of Italy. Charles was given the western part of the empire, which included most of present-day France,and Louis took the eastern part, which included most of present-day Germany.